Rome in Hispania
Stages of the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula
The conquest of Rome began in the third century B.C. and concluded, after a long and complex process, in the first century B.C.
We can distinguish three main stages:
1st stage: Conquest of the East and the South (218-197 BC)
The beginning of the conquest was framed in the context of the Second Punic War (wars that confronted Rome and Carthage for hegemony in the western Mediterranean).
The Carthaginians had important settlements in the eastern peninsula and from there attacked Rome through southern France and the Alps. Rome counterattacked invading Carthaginian possessions in Hispania at the end of the third century. The Roman victory of Ilipa (209 BC) ended the Carthaginian presence in Hispania and enshrined Rome's dominance over the east and south of the peninsula.
2nd stage: Conquest of the center and the western peninsular (197-29 BC)
The Romans had to face the resistance of the peoples of this area. The best examples are the Lusitanian wars (155-136 BC) in which Viriato, the Lusitanian leader, and the strong Celtic resistance in Numancia stood until the end of the city in 133 B.C., beacuse Numancia never surrendered.
The Roman Republic lived several civil wars that reached the peninsula. The internal struggles of Rome gave rise to fighting in the peninsula. A good example is the confrontation between Pompey and Cesar (49-45 BC). These conflicts accelerated Roman rule over the peninsula.
3rd stage: Conquest of the North (29-19 BC)
The end of the conquest came in the time of Augustus, the first Roman emperor, with the domination of Galatians, Asturians, Cantabrians and Vascones (Cantabrian wars).
Prepare a presentation about a Spanish city during Roman times. Talk about:
- Its most important monuments.
- Its most important characters (if any).
- Most important historical moments.