Ancient Egypt was one of the greatest and most powerful civilizations of the past. It lasted for over 3000 years from 3150 BC to 30 BC.
The monuments and tombs of their Pharaohs continue to stand today, 4,000 years later!
Where is Egypt?
Egypt is situated in the northeast corner of Africa.
Egypt is mainly made up of hot deserts and receives little rainfall. Without the River Nile, the area would be entirely desert. This is why all of Egypt depended on the Nile for water, food and transportation.
The Nile also provided the ancient Egyptians with fertile land which helped them to grow their crops and raise their animals.
Before modern dams were built the river Nile would flood each year coating the land on either side of the river with thick back mud (silt). This mud was ideal for growing crops on.
What is the difference between red land and black land?
The people in Ancient Egypt divided Egypt into two areas.
- The 'red land' was the deserts protecting Egypt on two sides. These deserts separated ancient Egypt from neighbouring countries and invading armies.
- The black land was the fertile land (near the Nile River) where the ancient Egyptians grew their crops.
The creation of Egypt
Two separate kingdoms (ruled by different kings) developed along the Nile River.
The kingdom in Upper Egypt was known as the white crown and the kingdom in Lower Egypt was called the red crown. In about 3200 BC the pharaoh of the north conquered the south and Egypt became united. The pharaoh's name was King Narmer or Menes.
Menes built a new capital city called Memphis. In the Greek language the word Memphis meant "Balance of the Two Lands."